1896

Hollerith forms the Tabulating Machine Company, which later becomes International Business Machines (IBM).

1902

Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein discovers the Theory of Relativity. He publishes it in dissertation at University of Zurich.

1903

Nikola Tesla

Nikola Tesla

Nikola Tesla, a Yugoslavian scientist and inventor, patents electrical logic circuits, called “gates” or “switches”.

1904

John Ambrose Fleming develops the vacuum tube.

1917

Teletypewriters

Teletypewriters

Teletypewriters (Teleprinters) appear, allowing point-to-point printed communications. Today’s TTY terminal emulation standard dates back to this device.

1925

Facsimile

Facsimile

AT&T’s Long Lines Department offers the press an early facsimile service between New York, Chicago, and San Francisco.

1926

A patent for a semiconductor transistor that allowed electrical currents to flow through computer, passing data.

1936

Dvorak keyboard

Dvorak keyboard

A keyboard designed for the ease of the user is developed by August Dvorak. The keyboard is designed with the least used keys on the outside corners, and the most often used keys within easy reach of the user’s fingers.

1937

The Atanasoff–Berry Computer

The Atanasoff–Berry Computer

Conceived in 1937, The Atanasoff–Berry Computer (ABC) was the first automatic electronic digital computer. It was designed only to solve systems of linear equations and was successfully tested in 1942. Credit: Wikipedia

The Turing Test

The Turing Test

Alan Turing invents the Turing Test, which determines whether something is human. Questions include things such as “Do you have feelings?” and “Do you feel pain?”

1940

Vacuum tubes

Vacuum tubes

Vacuum tubes are used for storage for the next 10 years.

1941

The Z3 Computer

The Z3 Computer

The Z3 was a German electro-mechanical computer designed by Konrad Zuse. It was the world’s first working programmable, digital computer. It operated at a clock frequency of about 4–5 Hz. Program code was stored on punched film. Initial values were entered manually. Konrad Zuse is often regarded as the inventor of the computer. Credit: Wikipedia  

1943

The ENIAC

The ENIAC

Between 1943 and 1945, U.S Army builds the ENIAC computer to calculate trajectories.

The Colossus

The Colossus

British build Colossus, a machine to break German codes.

1944

The Harvard Mark I

The Harvard Mark I

Harvard University and IBM develop the Mark I, which uses IBM punched cards.

The EDVAC

The EDVAC

First stored program computer is invented, the EDVAC.

1945

John Von Neumann

John Von Neumann

John Von Neumann describes a general purpose electronic digital computer with a stored program.

First computer “bug” reported. The “bug” was a moth that was caught up in the computer. It was discovered by naval officer and mathematician Grace Murray Hopper.

1946

After leaving the University of Pennsylvania due to disagreements about patent ownership, J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly – the two men who headed the ENIAC project – launched the first commercial computer company, Electronic Control Company. They begin to work on the UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer) for the U.S Census Bureau.

1948

John Bardeen, Walter Brattain and William Shockley of Bell Labs file for a patent on the first transistor.